During debates in the House of Representatives, constitutional objections were raised as to whether both houses of Congress could constitutionally approve the admission of territories and not states. If the Republic of Texas, a separate nation, were admitted as a state, its territorial boundaries, property relationships (including slave ownership), debts, and public lands would require a treaty ratified by the Senate.  Democrats were particularly concerned about weighing $10 million in Texas debt in the United States, angered by the flood of speculators who had bought Texas bonds at low prices and were now pressuring Congress for the Texas House bill.  House Democrats handed the bill to the Southern Whigs at an impasse.  In 1843, the United States was alarmed by Britain`s policy toward Texas. The British were opposed to annexation and even considered using force to prevent it. They did not want to add Texas to the British Empire, but they wanted to prevent the Western expansion of the United States, take commercial advantage of Texas trade, and manipulate the American customs system and the institution of slavery. In their first election, after Texas won its independence, Texans voted overwhelmingly to annex it to the United States. However, throughout the period of the republic, no annexation treaty was approved by either country. When all attempts to achieve a formal annexation treaty failed, the United States Congress passed – after much debate and only by a simple majority – a joint resolution for the annexation of Texas to the United States. Under the terms, Texas would retain both its public lands and public debt, it would have the power to divide into four additional “convenient-sized” states in the future if it so wished, and it would hand over all military, postal, and customs facilities and powers to the U.S.
government. Neither this joint resolution nor the ordinance passed by the Convention on the Annexation of the Republic of Texas gave Texas the right to secede. These events brought the future states of Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Washington and Oregon, as well as parts of what would later become Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming and Montana, under U.S. control. President Tyler expected his treaty to be secretly debated during the Senate Executive Session.  Less than a week after the beginning of the proceedings, however, the treaty, related internal correspondence, and Packenham`s letter were disclosed to the public. The nature of the Tyler-Texas negotiations sparked a national outcry, as “the documents seemed to confirm that the sole purpose of the annexation of Texas was to preserve slavery.”  A mobilization of anti-annexation forces in the North increased the hostility of both major parties to Tyler`s agenda. The main presidential candidates of both parties, Democrat Martin Van Buren and Whig Henry Clay, have publicly condemned the treaty.  The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of the Oregon Territory became central issues in the general election of 1844.  In June 1844, the Senate, with its Whig majority, rejected the Tyler Texas Treaty.
Pro-annexation Democrat Polk narrowly defeated anti-annexation Whig Henry Clay in the 1844 presidential election.  Submitted with a formal annexation proposal by Texas Minister Memucan Hunt, Jr. .